The Anti-Porn and Porn Critical Research Pack

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  • Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
  • Believing women suffer less from rape
  • Believing women in general enjoy rape
  • Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
  • Believing women make false accusations of rape
  • Believing rapist deserve less jail time
  • More acceptance of the rape myth
  • More acceptance of violence against women
  • More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently
  • Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  • More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
  • More self-reported likelihood of rape
  • Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
  • Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
  • More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
  • More likelihood of future rape
  • Using physical coercion to have sex
  • Using verbal coercion to have sex
  • Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
  • Having engaged in rape
  • Having engaged in date rape
  • Having engaged in marital rape
  • Being an adult sex offender
  • Being a child molester
  • Being an incest offender
  • Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
  • More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
  • More sexual attraction to children
  • Having sexually abused children

Studies Supporting These Points

Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape:

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs:A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

Believing women suffer less from rape:

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Believing women in general enjoy rape:

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs:A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”:

Millburn, M., Mather, R. & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape. Sex Roles, 43, Nov 2000, 645-664.

Believing women make false accusations of rape:

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs:A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

Believing rapist deserve less jail time:

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

More acceptance of the rape myth:

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography:Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

More acceptance of violence against women:

Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5-26.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

Hald, G., Malamuth, N. & Yuen, C. (2010). Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women:revisiting the relationship in non experimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.

More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently:

Monto, M. (1999). Focusing on the clients of street prostitutes:a creative approach to reducing violence against women. Final report for the National Institute of Justice. Available at http://www.ncjrs.org.

Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88.

Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence:

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

More self-reported likelihood of rape:

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography:Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

More self-reported likelihood of forced sex acts:

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography:Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused:

Malamuth, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.

Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors:

Barak, A., Fisher, W.A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys, and cyberspace:Effects of internet pornography and individual differences on men’s attitudes toward women. Journal of Psychological and Human Sexuality, 11, 63-92.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated:Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007). Predicting sexual aggression:The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually:

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression:Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

More likelihood of future rape:

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography:Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Using physical coercion to have sex:

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males:Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

Using verbal coercion to have sex:

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression:Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women:

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression:Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

Having engaged in rape:

Alexy, E., Burgess, A. & Prentky, R. (2009). Pornography use as a risk marker for an aggressive pattern of behavior among sexually reactive children and adolescents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14, 442-453.

Baron, L. & Straus, M. (1984). Sexual stratification, pornography, and rape in the United States. In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression. New York:Academic Press.

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression:Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Cramer, E. & McFarlane, J. (1994). Pornography and abuse of women. Public Health Nursing, 11, 4, 268-272.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males:Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

Malamuth, N., Addison, T. & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression:Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26-68.

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Senn, C. (1993). The research on women and pornography:The many faces of harm. In D. E. H. Russell (Ed.), Making violence sexy. New York: Teachers College Press.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007). Predicting sexual aggression:The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

Having engaged in date rape:

Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York, Harper and Row.

Having engaged in marital rape:

Simmons, C. A, Lehmann, P & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Violence against Women, 14, 406-417.

Being an adult sex offender:

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Being a child molester:

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Being an incest offender:

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse:

Shope, J. (2004). When words are not enough:The search for the effect of pornography on abused women. Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 56-72.

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships:An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

Sommers, E. K. & Check, J. V. P. (1987). An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the verbal and physical abuse of women. Violence and Victims, 2, 1, 189-209.

More willingness to [rape] 13-14 year olds:

Hegna, H., Mossige, S. & Wichstrom, L. (2004). Older adolescents’ positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners. Adolescence, 39, 156, 627-651.

More sexual attraction to children:

Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1989). University males sexual interest in children:Predicting potential indices of “pedophilia” in a nonforensic sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 65-75.

Smiljanich, K. & Briere, J. (1996). Self-reported sexual interest in children:Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample. Violence and Victims. 11, 1, 39-50.

Having sexually abused children:

Bourke, M. & Hernandez, A. (2009). The Butner study redux:A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 183-191.

Carter, D. L., Prentky. R. A., Knight, R. A. & Vanderveer, P. L. (1987). Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sex offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 2, 196-211.

Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., Bradford, J. M. (2008) Pornography use and sexual aggression:The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 4, 341-351.

Proulx, J., Perreault, C. & Ouimet, M. (1999). Pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters. Sexual Abuse:A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 2, 117-129.

Seto, M. & Eke, A. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse:Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 2, 201-210.

Wheeler, D. L. (1997). The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A:Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 57(8-A), pp. 3691.

Compiled by Mary Anne Layden, PhD Director, Sexual Trauma and Psychopathology Program Center for Cognitive Therapy, University of Pennsylvania

(http://pornharmsresearch.com/2013/12/talking-points-pornography-and-criminal-behavior-and-attitudes-research/)

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